Volume 4, Issue 1, November 2021

Volume 4: Issue 1, November 2021



Kelly R. Maguire, EdD

Scott W. Greenberger, EdD


doi: 10.9743/JSE.2021.4.1.1


With the completion of Volume 4, Issue 1, the journal has now published 48 articles, involving 73 different scholars affiliated with 14 different institutions. We have published innovative manuscripts, such as reflective essays, community engagement portfolios, and professional profiles, as well as standard empirical articles. In addition, we have made the manuscript available in an open access format on our website, and through the continued sponsorship of Grand Canyon University, we have published more than 50 print copies for each issue.


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Preparing Pre-service Teachers for Teaching Post-Pandemic: Reflections on How to Adapt Microteaching


Kelly R. Maguire

Grand Canyon University


doi: 10.9743/JSE.2021.4.1.2

The purpose of this reflective practice was to explore the unexpected revelation that following the completion of my doctoral journey during the pandemic, my future teaching approach would need to change. The identified problem was the unexpected revelation that I did not know how I would adapt microteaching to prepare my pre-service teachers for teaching post-pandemic with the subsequent push to teach online. The following are the proposed reasons for the problem: (a) education changed instantaneously, and (b) I was unprepared. In evaluating the reasons, the issue of adapting microteaching to an online modality such as Zoom was one necessary outcome from the reflective practice. Future research is recommended to explore how educators who instruct in teacher preparation programs can continue to use microteaching both in traditional university classrooms and online modalities such as Zoom.


Keywords: microteaching, online modalities, teacher preparation, pre-service teachers


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A 23-year Veteran University Faculty Member’s Transition from Ground to Synchronous Online Classroom during the Global COVID-19 Pandemic


Cindy Seminoff

Grand Canyon University

doi: 10.9743/JSE.2021.4.1.3




This article is an example of a 23-year veteran university faculty member’s reflective practice which took place during the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic forced educational institutions to immediately move to e-learning which impacted instructors in all levels of education. Numerous challenges to overcome such as maintaining student engagement, coping with student distractions, incorporating technology effectively, and minimizing vocal fatigue arose as instructors navigated this new modality of delivery. In this paper, through the process of reflective practice, I explain the situation I experienced and compared that experience to the literature to help me to better understand the challenges I faced. The process of reflective practice allows for improved decision making to provide solutions for future semesters of teaching. The reflective practice process has a goal of positively impacting one’s development as a professional and potentially helping other professionals faced with similar situations. I explain potential reasons for the challenges, evaluate those reasons, and decide on what is the most plausible explanation for the unexpected challenges I experienced. After the evaluation is complete, I make an informed decision for future practice. I conclude with recommendations for future research.


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Transitioning from Face-to-Face Instruction to Asynchronous vs. Synchronous Platforms: Lessons from COVID-19


Stephanie West

Grand Canyon University

doi: 10.9743/JSE.2021.4.1.4


This reflective paper examines the issues involved in moving from in-person college instruction to either an asynchronous or synchronous online course. The primary focus of this paper was the issues and challenges school systems across the United States faced when the COVID-19 caused nationwide school closures. The transition from traditional classroom settings to online environments was done quickly with the course content as the focus of these courses. As the course got underway, new issues arose, such as student engagement and the use of Learning Management Systems. Using Moore’s Types of Interactions, this reflection will examine the effectiveness of the transition to interactions with the instructor, student to student, course content, and system. The school closures of this magnitude have created a need to re-evaluate school emergency closure plans, training on schoolwide LMS, student engagement, and student social and emotional intelligence.


Keywords: asynchronous, synchronous, online learning, student engagement, social and emotional intelligence, emergency school plans, Moore’s Types of Interactions.


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A Critical Reflection to Improve Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in the Classroom


Amy Anderson

Spokane Community College

Gonzaga University

Whitworth University




The purpose of this reflective practice was to critically examine an unexpected revelation that I did not have the skills needed to effectively teach in a diverse classroom. As a communication studies instructor at the community college and university level, I teach students from various backgrounds. Yet, I lacked knowledge about the elements of these students’ identities that impact their learning, such as their differing abilities, genders, cultures, and socioeconomic statuses. After an intensive year of professional development on diversity, equity, and inclusion, I finally had the knowledge to better serve my students. Next, I reflected on how I could use these insights to improve my course curriculum, relationship with students, and teaching practices. Furthermore, I developed a checklist for educators to use as a self-reflection tool to better inform their teaching practices in a diverse classroom.


Keywords: critical reflection, diversity, equity, inclusion, curriculum, teacher-student relationships, teaching practices


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Community Engagement in a School of Education


Debora Scheffel

Colorado Christian University


Renee Lizcano

Colorado Christian University

doi: 10.9743/JSE.2021.4.1.6


A School of Education has a unique opportunity to engage with their local and larger communities. This paper details how one School of Education within a private, religious university works to serve and learn from others through three different initiatives. These include: serving in elected office, creating professional development opportunities for educators and administrators across the state, and developing and implementing a research study involving a reading clinic for local elementary students and their families. We discuss how we have worked to inspire change to lead to improvements in society and the different methods we employed to lead to that change. We conclude by reflecting upon the benefits we have seen so far and describe our plans for community engagement in the future.


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Student Inspirational Posting as a Low-Stakes Intervention to Reduce Test-Anxiety


Filippo Posta

Estrella Mountain Community College


Elizabeth Valenti

Grand Canyon University

doi: 10.9743/JSE.2021.4.1.7


Test-anxiety is a common issue in education often connected with academic underachievement. This study attempted to alleviate test-anxiety through student-written inspirational messages projected on the classroom wall during the final exam. We recorded test-anxiety scores from 226 students before the exam and assessed the effects of the intervention thorough a post-exam survey. Most students in the study reported positive feedback from the experience. Students with high level of anxiety self-reported a statistically significant reduction of test-anxiety when compared to peers with low or medium levels of test-anxiety (p<0.05 and Cohen’s d=0.47).

Keywords: test-anxiety, student-driven intervention, student attitudes

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Don’t Wait...Collaborate!


Alli Schilling

Grand Canyon University


Marnie C. Davis

Grand Canyon University


Lisa A. Duryee

Grand Canyon University


Helen G. Hammond

Grand Canyon University


doi: 10.9743/JSE.2021.4.1.8


Collaboration is encouraged in workplaces, but there are often barriers to working together to meet organizational goals. In higher education, faculty have obligations to students, leadership, and other departments that may hinder collaboration between their peers. This article discusses how four full time faculty Members at a large Christian university in the Southwest United States overcame time constraints and organizational structure to build a collaborative working environment across several departments. With student success in mind, the faculty members focused on collaboration to improve course curriculum, build relationships with other departments and colleges, increase the use of technology tools in their classrooms, and complete academic research. While there were challenges, leadership support and positive student experiences encouraged faculty members to push on. Although collaboration does require flexibility and creativity that may be new to faculty members that are used to working individually, the benefits can be astounding. 


Keywords: Classroom assessment techniques (CATS), classroom technology, classroom technology tools, collaboration, course content, full-time faculty, higher education, feedback, group development, leadership, online faculty, online learning, scholarship of teaching and learning, technology.


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Personality Type and Motivation to Play MMO Games


Daniel Kaufmann

Grand Canyon University


doi: 10.9743/JSE.2021.4.1.9


Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) consist of many qualities which relate to the World Health Organization’s decision to identify Video Game Disorder as a defined mental health condition. While structural characteristics can determine the routine patterns of behavior a player may demonstrate, other factors are often involved in the discussion of why some elements within a game would appeal to certain players when compared to others. Open-ended gaming, such as what is found in many online games, is found in past research to lead to immersive experiences which could be perceived by mental health professionals as a tendency towards the developing an addiction around certain game types. The MMORPG genre can occupy extensive amounts of time in perpetuity, which then leads to interference in other life areas when a strategy for life balance is lacking. This study aimed to find ways personality theory could expand counselors’ understanding of motivational conditions involved in the play of online video games. For this purpose, participation involved the completion of a personality assessment tool (MBTI-M) and an assessment to measure specific motivation elements for playing online games (MPOGQ) by players of the specific online game targeted for this study; Star Wars: The Old Republic (SWTOR). Significant differences across many personality types were found in most gaming motivation categories. Findings suggest personality does have an impact on the manner in which MMORPG players seek to participate in their game of choice. 


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Reflective Practice: Digging into EdTech Tools–The Application of Edpuzzle in Online Higher Education


Megan K. Neel

Grand Canyon University


Candace M. Duffy

Grand Canyon University


Remilyn Mueller

Grand Canyon University


doi: 10.9743/JSE.2021.4.1.10

In this article, three online full-time faculty members collectively reflect on their teaching practices and overall purpose, which is to proactively engage students, and set them on the path to long-term success. Faculty considered EdTech applications already in use within their Learning Management System (LMS), and how they could continue to expand the use of engagement strategies in classroom discussion forums to improve student understanding and performance. After ample discussion and planning, the EdTech tool, Edpuzzle, was selected to edit and enhance instructional videos. The resulting “One-Minute-To-Win-It” videos contributed to student motivation and engagement, while providing more online classroom personalization and increased functionality for students and faculty. Through the framework of John Dewey and the lens of the lived experiences of the contributing authors, this article introduces a creative strategy to promote student learning and to foster connection in a digital environment. 


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Online Publication Date: November 30, 2021

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